Assessment of chemo-mechanical impacts of CO2 sequestration on the caprock formation in Farnsworth oil field, Texas
本研究利用Farnsworth Unit（FWU）油田内以13-10A井为中心井的反五点井组数据，评估注入CO2对Morrow B砂岩储层和 Morrow泥岩盖层的地球化学和地质力学影响。本研究还试图评估盖层的完整性和FWU油田的长期CO2封存能力。
This study evaluates the chemo-mechanical influence of injected CO2 on the Morrow B sandstone reservoir and the upper Morrow shale caprock utilizing data from the inverted 5-spot pattern centered on Well 13-10A within the Farnsworth unit (FWU). This study also seeks to evaluate the integrity of the caprock and the long-term CO2 storage capability of the FWU.
The inverted 5-spot pattern was extracted from the field-scale model and tuned with the available field observed data before the modeling work. Two coupled numerical simulation models were utilized to continue the study. First, a coupled hydro-geochemical model was constructed to simulate the dissolution and precipitation of formation minerals by modeling three intra-aqueous and six mineral reactions. In addition, a coupled hydro-geomechanical model was constructed and employed to study the effects of stress changes on the caprock’s porosity, permeability, and ground displacement. The Mohr–Coulomb circle and failure envelope were used to determine caprock failure. In this work, the CO2-WAG injection is followed by the historical field-observed strategy.
During the forecasting period, a Water Alternating Gas (WAG) injection ratio of 1:3 was utilized with a baseline bottom-hole pressure constraint of 5500 psi for 20 years. A post-injection period of 1000 years was simulated to monitor the CO2 plume and its effects on the CO2 storage reservoir and caprock integrity. The simulation results indicated that the impacts of the geochemical reactions on the porosity of the caprock were insignificant as it experienced a decrease of about 0.0003% at the end of the 1000-year post-injection monitoring. On the other hand, the maximum stress-induced porosity change was about a 1.4% increase, resulting in about 4% in permeability change. It was estimated that about 3.3% of the sequestered CO2 in the formation interacted with the caprock. Despite these petrophysical property alterations and CO2 interactions in the caprock, the caprock still maintained its elastic properties and was determined to be far from its failure.